According to statistics, about 80-90 percent of the populationsuffer from uneven dentition - in other words, have an overbite. In most cases, it is easy to diagnose by visual inspection at the orthodontist. According to experts, all types of malocclusion amenable to correction, not only among children but also adults.
Dental occlusion is determined by the nature of the clamping jaw dentition.
- lower incisors maxillary incisors overlap by about 2-3 mm;
- there are no gaps between the teeth standing side by side, crowding, twisted teeth;
- central incisors jaws are arranged symmetrically relative to the median line of the person;
- there is the correct form of the dental arches (upper - in the form of semi-oval, the bottom - of the half);
- while chewing molars are closed with their antagonists opposite jaw.
Correct bite not only forms disposing a smile, but also creates a harmonious oval face, correctly distributes the load of chewing teeth, causes clear diction.
The following types of malocclusions:
- overbite - fairly common disorder when the upper incisors overlapping lower while closing more than half their length;
- distal - arises in the case of over-development of the upper jaw, or if the bottom is underdeveloped. The upper jaw protrudes excessively relative to the bottom;
- mesial - excessively protrudes the lower jaw;
- Cross - poorly developed one of the sides of the lower or upper teeth;
- open - a violation of not closing the teeth (side or front) of the upper and lower jaws;
- dystopia - offset from the normal position in the dentition to the side, above or below (characteristic of canines);
- diastema - the emergence of a few millimeters wide gap between the front teeth.
Causes and consequences of malocclusion
Malocclusion can develop under the influence of the following factors:
- heredity and birth trauma;
- improper feeding (breast-like and artificial), thumb-sucking and pacifiers, improper position during sleep;
- disorders eruption, premature removal, uneven erasing milk teeth;
- some chronic diseases nasopharynx - due to mouth breathing;
- improper posture;
- disease rickets;
- metabolic disorders;
- injuries and diseases of the teeth and jaws;
- delays in prosthetics.
Malocclusion smile spoil and distort the ovalpersons therefore can cause psychological complexes appearance. Moreover, in addition to aesthetic problems, malocclusion in the future could trigger a "bouquet" of functional disorders and diseases:
- Erasing enamel, increasing sensitivity and tooth decay;
- violation of chewing function, swallowing, facial expression, diction;
- gum disease and periodontal tissue (gingivitis, periodontal disease, periodontal disease);
- dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint;
- soft tissue damage to the mouth with the occurrence of traumatic ulcers;
- diseases of the digestive system due to the difficulty chewing food;
- inflammatory disease of the nasopharynx.
Methods of correcting malocclusion
It is recommended to correct the bite inchildhood, before the final formation of jaws and dentition. Bite man formed around the age of 16 years. The earlier detect abnormal bite the child, the easier it is to fix. Parents need to pay attention to this issue, periodically consult with an orthodontist. The specialist will recommend, at what age to start correction. If the bite correction of defects has not been made in childhood and adolescence, you do it too late, and after 20-30 years. Malocclusion is quite a long time the procedure in each case, the method of treatment is chosen individually.
Malocclusion in children
In the presence of malocclusion following his method of correction may be proposed in children and adolescents:
- Physiotherapy for chewing and mimicmuscles (mioterapiya) - use effectively in the age of 3-6 years, during temporary occlusion, creates the preconditions for the normalization of the jaws and eruption of the molars.
- The use of removable orthodontic appliances:
massage gums are also used to correct the direction of growth of teeth.
- plastic plates for jawmanufactured in the dental studio special impression. Effective influence on the formation of bone and jaw system between the ages of 6 to 12 years. The plate is fixed wire bindings removed before eating and when cleaning teeth;
- trainers - special splints of flexiblematerials, adapting to the particular shape of the jaw. Trainers are produced by industrial methods are effective for correcting malocclusion in children, they can be used to 5 years. Wear during the day for a few hours as well as at night. Effective with the ill-defined malocclusion, as well as to consolidate the results after treatment.
- vestibular metal - areproven budget option. It is very sturdy and functional design, clearly visible in the mouth. Metal braces are attached to the outside of the teeth, as a result of their use may cause irritation of the gums. An affordable price;
- sapphire - are manufactured using artificially grown crystals transparent, invisible in the mouth, do not cause irritation of the gums. These braces are quite expensive;
- ceramic - ceramic made from hypoallergenic, inconspicuous teeth, not very strong, do not irritate the gums;
- Lingual - are attached to the inside of the teeth, absolutely invisible. Such a system is difficult to install and care, the high cost is different;
- self-ligating (bezligaturnye) Braces - the mostmodern solution to correct malocclusion, are attached to the teeth by means of sliding latch system. Shorten duration of treatment as compared to other types of bracket of 20-25%.
Malocclusion in Adults
The method of correction is prescribed after carefulSurvey dentition, depending on the health condition, age, lifestyle, based on aesthetic and economic aspects. Held preliminary dental health. Sealed teeth can be brittle in places tooth extraction possible atrophy of bone tissue. Given the already formed dentition system, orthopedic treatment will be long enough time. On the other hand, the adult has a highly motivated and will thoroughly implement assigned recommendations.
For correction of malocclusion of adults are widely used:
- Special bracket system - depending on thebudget and preference, the patient can choose metal, ceramic, sapphire inconspicuous on teeth and lingual ( "invisible") structure.
- Capa - removable construction of transparentpolymer. Eliminate virtually any tooth bending. The clear need to wear a mouth guard almost around the clock, taking off only during meals. In the process of bite correction consistently produced and replaced with several teeth cap on medication may be needed for about a year.
The use of fixed systems complicates oral care - will have to clean the braces after each meal. The duration of occlusion correction on average one and a half to two years.
In severe cases, malocclusion, with severedeformations of the dental system, disorders of the jaw bones proportions used surgical correction of malocclusion. The operation is performed with the use of general anesthesia, followed by a lengthy process of healing, razrabatyvanie jaw. After surgical correction of malocclusion can be assigned to wearing braces. In the course of orthodontic treatment or after surgery may be indicated laser therapy - for healing of micro traumas, reduce inflammation, speed up regeneration of tissues in the bite correction.
healingandbodywork encourages parentsbe sure to take the children to the age of 6-7 years are welcome to the orthodontist for the early detection of malocclusions. These disorders in children, and also in quite adulthood successfully amenable to correction - and straight and healthy teeth, smile and well-being of all pleasantly surprise.